APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS

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Heat & Thermodynamics: Heat, Temperature, Theories of heat, Adiabatic andisothermal processes, The four laws of thermodynamics, Thermodynamic functions, Maxwell’s Thermodynamic relations. Efficiency of Heat Engines, Carnot’s Cycle, Entropy.

Energy and Property Relation: Thermodynamics equilibrium; reversibility; Specific heats and their relationship; Entropy; Second Law of Thermodynamics; Property relations from energy equation; Frictional energy.

Ideal Gas: Gas laws; Specific heat of an ideal gas; Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure; Third Law of Thermodynamics; Entropy of an ideal gas; Thermodynamic processes.

Thermodynamic Cycles: Cycle work; Thermal efficiency and heat rate, Carnot cycle; Stirling cycle; Reversed and reversible cycles; Most efficient engine.

Consequences of the Second Law: Clausius’s inequality; Availability and irreversibility; Steady flow system.

Two-Phase Systems: Two-phase system of a pure substance; Changes of phase at constant pressure; Steam tables; Superheated steam; Compressed liquid; Liquid and vapour curves; Phase diagrams; Phase roles; Processes of vapours; Mollier diagram; Rankine cycle; Boilers and anciliary equipment.

Internal Combustion Engines: Otto cycle; Dual combustion cycle; Four-stroke and two-stroke engines; Types of fuels.

Reciprocating Compressor: Condition for minimum work; Isothermal efficiency; Volumetric efficiency; Multi-stage compression; Energy balance for a two-stage machine with intercooler.

Course Syllabus