General Principles of Surveying: Determination and plotting of positions, Scales, Errors and Degree of accuracy required.

Chain Surveying: Chains and tapes, optical square and other instruments, Ranging and chaining lines, errors in chaining, Field Book, Plotting chain survey, Obstacle Surveying.

Compass Surveying: Prismatic and Surveyor’s compasses, Meridians, Bearings, declination and local attraction, Traversing, Adjustment of compass survey.

Theodolite Surveying: Types of theodolites and their structure. Handling and care of instruments, Temporary adjustment of theodolite, Measurement of bearings and horizontal and vertical angles, Use of theodolite as a leveling instrument. Total stations, EDM (Electronic Distance Meter).

Plane Table Surveying: Plane table and accessories, Adjustment and Orientation, Methods of Plane-table surveying, Merits and demerits of plane tabling, Contouring with tangent clinometer. Two-point and three-point problems.

Box Sextant: Structure, adjustment and use for measuring angles.

Leveling: General principles of leveling, Optics of Surveying telescope and their structure, Types of levels, Temporary and permanent adjustment, Methods of leveling, Level Books, Reduction of levels and checks. Leveling for longitudinal section and cross-section, plotting precaution in leveling, Sources of error, Corrections for curvature and refraction.

Reciprocal Leveling: Barometers and their uses for determination of altitude. Contours and method of Contouring. Clinometers.

Computation of Areas and Volumes: Calculation of Areas by various methods, Planimeter, Reducing and enlarging maps. Computation of volumes of earthwork and storage from control maps. Introduction to modern computer applications in the field of surveying.

Course Syllabus