POWER DISTRIBUTION AND UTILIZATION
Introduction to distribution system. Urban, suburban and rural distribution systems. Primary, secondary and tertiary voltages. Radial and ring main systems, application of distribution transformers, estimation of load, load characteristics, substation switch gears and bus bar arrangements, calculation of voltage drop and regulation in distribution feeders. Grounding and earthing, distribution transformer neutral, earthing resistance, earthing practice in L.V. networks. Power Factor: Disadvantages and causes of low power factor,methods for improvement, application of shunt capacitors in distribution network. Batteries & Electrochemical Processes: Main types of batteries and their working, battery charging, electroplating, electrolysis and electro-metallurgical process. Cathodic protection of poles, gas pipes, oil pipes and water structures. Heating and Welding: Electric heating, resistance, induction and dielectric heating, electric furnaces, microwave heating, electric welding, resistance welding and its types. Fundamentals of Illumination Engineering: Laws, units and terms used, requirements for good lighting, illumination schemes for various situations (street lighting, commercial/industrial lighting, stadium/flood/stage/spotlighting etc.), types of lamps, their working and relative merit.