INSTRUMENTATION & MEASUREMENTS
Introduction, Definition & purpose of instrumentation, Data Analysis, Definition of Data, Precision, Accuracy, Data Presentation, Tabular & Graphing, Errors, Basic Definition, Types of Errors, Estimation of Errors. Functional Elements of a Typical Instrument Block Diagram, Model Relating Input & Output, Effects of Interfering & Modifying Inputs on Output Correction Method, Static Evaluation, Calibration Technique, Evaluation of Static parameters Sensitivity, Linearity, Resolution, Threshold, Hysteresis, Dead span, Rang, Basic Definition, Sources of Noise, Methods of Noise Coupling, Conductive, Capacitive, magnetic & Electromagnetic, Noise Protection Methods, Shielding, Grounding, Safety Grounding, Signal Grounding,Noise in Digital Systems, Voltage Measurement; Permanent Magnet Moving Coil (PMMC), Digital voltmeters, analogue voltmeters, increasing the range of PMMC (shunt resistors and series resistors). Current Measurement, Methods of current measurement Resistance Measurement, Methods of resistance measurement Frequency & Phase Measurements, Methods of frequency measurement; methods of phase.
Measurement of Power & Power Quality Measurements, Smart Meters, KVAR Meter, Megger, Oscilloscopes, Chart Recorders, Spectrum Analyzers & Signal Generation Oscilloscope block diagram, cathode ray tube (CRT), CRT circuits, vertical deflection system, delay line, horizontal deflection system, probes and transducers, digital storage scopes, types of chart recorders, introduction to spectrum analyzers, sine wave generator, Signal Generation Modulation, sweep frequency generator, pulse and square wave generator, function generator, audio-frequency generator, signal generation.