Estimation of Sewage Quantities: Population characteristics, population forecasting, waste water generation, Rainfall intensity formulas, hydro graph & weather flow, sewage quantities; Variations and rates of flows; Velocity gradient & limiting velocities.
Characteristics of Sewage: Sampling techniques and examination of wastewater (Physical, chemical and microbiological parameters), Biochemical Oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Microbiology of sewage. Effluent disposal guideline and standards, Pakistan National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) and International Standards.
Sewer System: Types, shapes, size and materials of sewers, pipe strengths and tests; Design, construction, laying and maintenance of sewage system; Separate &Combined systems; Sewer appurtenances.
Sewage Treatment and Disposal: Primary, secondary & tertiary treatment; Screening grit chamber, skimming tanks & sedimentation tanks; Activated sludge treatment, tricking filters, oxidation ponds, etc.
Sewage Disposal: Receiving body, assimilation capacity; Stream pollution and self recovery, sludge handling & disposal; Effluent re-use.
Building drainage: Soil pipes, anti-syphon pipes and waste water pipes; sanitary fixtures and traps; House connection and testing of house drainage; Cross connection and back syphonage control.
Solid Waste Management: Types, characteristics, sources and quantities of solid waste; Collection disposal and recycling. Environmental Legislation and Regulations, Pakistan Environmental Protection Act Air and Noise Pollution Environmental Impact Assessment