Basics of Surveying: Definition, Evolution of Surveying, Types and Classes of Surveys, Plane Table Survey, Surveying Instrumentation, Survey References, Units of Measurement, Location Methods, Accuracy and Precision, Errors and Mistakes, Accuracy Ratio, Stationing, Field Notes, Field Management.

Measurement of Horizontal Distances: Methods of Linear measurement, Types of Measurement, Chains, Tapes, Standard conditions for use of Steel types, Taping Accessories and their use, Systematic Taping Errors and Corrections, Random Taping Errors and Mistakes in Taping, Field notes for Taping Conventional & Electronic Field books.

Leveling: Definitions, Theory of Differential Leveling, Effects of Curvature and Refraction, Types of Levels, Automatic Level, Digital Level, Adjustment of Levels, Types of Leveling Staff, Leveling Operations, Techniques of Leveling, Benchmark Leveling (Vertical Control Survey), Profile and Cross-section Leveling, Reciprocal Leveling, Peg Test, Errors in Leveling, Contours and their characteristics, Various methods of Contouring.

Angles & Directions: Horizontal and Vertical Angles, Meridians, Types of Horizontal angles, Azimuths, Bearing, Relationship between Bearings and Azimuths, Reverse Directions, Azimuth and Bearings computations, Magnetic Declination, Types of Compasses.

Theodolites / Tacheometers: Introduction, Types of Theodolites, Repeating, Directional and Electronic Theodolites, Temporary adjustments, Measurement of Horizontal and Vertical Angles, Prolonging a Straight Line, Permanent Adjustments, Use of Tacheometers in computation of Horizontal and Vertical Distances.

Traverse Surveys: Open and Closed Traverses, Latitude and Departures, Computation of Error of Closure, and the accuracy of a Traverse, Traversing with Total Station Instruments, Rules of Adjustment, Effects of Measurements, Areas of Closed Traverse Methods, Use of Computer programs.

An Introduction to Geomatics and Global Positioning System: Geomaticsdefined, Braches of Geomatics, Remote Sensing, Techniques of remote sensing, Background information on global positioning, receivers, Satellites, Errors, GPS Surveying techniques and applications.

Course Syllabus