Introduction to Geology: The Earth as a planet, Process of external and internal origin (volcanic, metamorphic, sedimentary – Rock cycle). Physical properties and identification of common/major rock, soil and clay forming minerals.

Importance of Geology for Civil Engineering Projects: Role of geology in selection of sites of dams, reservoirs, tunnels, bridges and ports/harbours. Selection as building materials and soils as construction material.

Rocks Formation and Classification: According to the mode of occurrences (origin or genesis) and their compositions.

Weathering Classification: Fresh, Slightly weathered, Moderately Weathered etc. Formation of Meanders Cycle of Erosion.

Structural Geology: Types of Joints, Types of Faults, Modes of Folds and their effects on planning and design of Civil Engineering Projects.

Micro Structural Features: Lamination, Cleavages, Foliations. Spacing of discontinuities: Close, wide, medium etc. Construction of geological field maps from bore logs.

Description of Rock Masses as Thickly Bedded Or Thinly Bedded: Identification of filling in joints: Sand, clay and breccias etc. colour of grain, description with respect to the colour, identification as a coarse grained, hardness and durability classifications. Identification and classification by geological names.Determination of Mechanical Properties of Rocks and their Engineering Classification.

Earthquakes: Plate Tectonic with respect to the global application, earthquakes, causes of earthquakes, protective measures against earthquakes. Zoning of earth quakes in Pakistan. Seismic Waves. Classification of Earthquake, Intensity Scale. Ground subsidence and land slides.

Introduction to Geoinformatics: Resources of information, photogrammetric surveying, satellite system aerial and satellite photogrammetric. Global positioning system, remote sensing, geographic information system.

Course Syllabus