ECONOMICS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS
Introduction: Basic concepts, engineering economy defined Measures of financial effectiveness, Momentary values. The Economic Environment:
Consumer and Producer goods, Measures of economic worth, Price, Supply Demand relationship. Selections between Alternatives: Present economy, Selection among materials, techniques, designs etc. A basic investment philosophy. Alternatives having identical lives. Values Analysis: Important cost concepts. Cost-benefit analysis, feasibility studies. Values analysis in designing and purchasing. Linear Programming: Mathematical statement of linear programming problems, Graphic solution, simplex procedure, Duality problem. Depreciation and Valuation: Types of Depreciation, Economic life, Profit continuous compounding. Discounting sinking fund problems. Capital Financing and Budgeting: Types of ownership, types of stock, partnership and joint stock companies. Banking and specialized credit institution. Theory of Production: Factors of production, Laws of Returns, Break even charts and relationship. Industrial Relationship: Labour problems, Labour organizations, Prevention and settlement of disputes. Comparison of Pakistan’s Economy with its neighbors and Group of 7 countries. Recommendations for better Economic growth.