Analog Modulation Techniques: Introduction, Theory of Amplitude Modulation; AM Power Calculations, AM Modulation with a Complex wave, Theory of Frequency Modulation (FM); Spectra of FM Signals, Narrow Band and Wide Band FM, Theory of Phase Modulation, Comparison of AM and FM, Comparison of PM and FM, Noise and Frequency Modulation, Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis. AM Transmission/AM Reception: Introduction, Generation of Amplitude Modulation, Basic Principles of AM Generation; Square law Diode Modulation, Vander Bijl Modulation, Suppressed Carrier AM Generation, Ring Modulator, Balanced Modulator. Tuned Radio Frequency (TRF) Receiver, Basic Elements of AM Super-heterodyne receiver; RF Amplifiers Characteristics-Sensitivity, Selectivity, Image Frequency Rejection, Mixers Tracking and Alignment, Local Oscillator, IF Amplifier, AM Detectors; Envelope or Diode Detector, AGC, AM Receiver using Transistors Communication Receiver. FM Transmission/FM Reception: Generation of FM by Direct Methods. Indirect Generation of FM; The Armstrong Method, FM Stereo Transmission.FM Receiver Direct Methods of Frequency Demodulation; Slope Detector, Travis Detector Foster Seely or Phase Discriminator, Indirect methods of FM Demodulation; FM Detector using PLL and Stereo FM Multiplex Reception. SSB Transmission/SSB Reception: Advantages of SSB transmission, Generation of SSB; Independent Side-Band Systems (ISB), Vestigial Side-Band Modulation (VSB).SSB Product Demodulator, Balanced Modulator as SSB Demodulator, ISB/Suppressed Carrier Receiver. Pulse Modulation Transmission and Reception: Introduction, Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), PAM Modulator Circuit, Demodulation of PAM Signals, Pulse Time Modulation (PTM); Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), Pulse Position Modulation (PPM), PPM Demodulator. Information Theory: Introduction, Measurement of information, Entropy, Information Rate, Hartley Law, Noise in Information Carrying Channel and Shannon-Hartley Theorem.

Course Syllabus