Overview of Distributed Computing, Emergence of Cloud Computing, Global Nature of the Cloud, Cloud-Based Service Offerings, Grid Computing, Reliability of Cloud Model, Benefits of Cloud Model, Legal Issues, Key Characteristics of Cloud Computing, Challenges for the Cloud. The Evolution of Cloud Computing. Web Services Delivered from the Cloud: Communication-asa-Service (CaaS), Infrastructure-as-a-Service, Monitoring- as-a-Service (MaaS), Platform-asa-Service (PaaS), Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS). Building Cloud Networks. Virtualization. Federation, Presence, Identity, and Privacy in the Cloud. Security in the Cloud. Common Standards in Cloud Computing. End-User Access to Cloud Computing. Mobile Internet Devices and the Cloud.