Zero Reference Level, Ohm’s Law, Linear & Non-Linear Resistors, Cells in Series and Parallel. Resistive Circuits. Inductors, Capacitors, Energy Sources. Magnetism and Electromagnetism; Theory of Solid State; P- N Junction; Forward Biased P-N Junction; Forward V/I Characteristics; Reverse Biased P-N Junction; Reverse Saturation Current; Reverse V/I Characteristics, Junction Breakdown, Junction Capacitance. Opto-electronics Devices; Spectral Response of Human Eye; Light Emitting Diode (LED); Photoemission Devices, Photomultiplier Tube, Photovoltaic Devices, Bulk Type Photoconductive Cells, Photodiodes, P-N Junction Photodiode, PIN Photodiode, and Avalanche Photodiode; DC Power Supplies; Rectifiers. Filters, Voltage Multipliers, Silicon Controlled Rectifier SCR; The Basic Transistor; Transistor Biasing, Transistor Circuit Configuration; Modulation and Demodulation; Carrier Waves; Integrated Circuits.