Introduction to Biology:

Biology, divisions of living organism, major branches of biology, levels of biological organization, biological methods, application of biology. Cell and its organelles, chemical composition of cell, Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, Inter phase and subdivision, Mitosis, Meiosis, and their significance.

Life Processes:

Nutrition, Respiratory system, transport phenomena, immune system, excretory system, Reproductive system and disorders.

Support & Locomotion:

Support and movement. Human musculoskeletal system, structure, function, deformities and diseases.

Coordination & Control:

Definition & need, nervous system in man and effects of drugs.

Growth & Development:

Development of man, role of cytoplasm & nucleus in development, abnormal development.

Continuity of Life and Genetics and Variation:

Chromosomes & DNA, genes units of heredity, Genes & Alleles, Mendel’s Laws of inheritance, multiple alleles, linkage &crossing over, sex determination & sex, diabetes as an example of hereditary disease.

Functional Biology:

Nutrition; types of nutrition; nutrition in amoeba, hydra and cockroach; nutrition in main; disorders of gastrointestinal tract of man.


Plant Respiration (very short); respiratory organs of aquatic and terrestrical animals; transport of gasses in man (respiratory system and process); role of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Transport: Need Transport; circulatory system of selected animals; circulatory system of man; structure of heart; blood vessels; blood pressure; cardiovascular disorder; lymphatic system & immune system.


Definition and need; Osmoregulation, excretion and thermoregulation; excretion in amoeba, hydra, planaria, earthworm and cockroach; excretion in man; kidney problems.

Support & Locomotion:

Support and movement in man and animal; human skeleton, structure and function and deformities; skeleton related disease and bone repair; muscular system in man.

Coordination & Control:

Definition and need; nervous system of hydra; planaria, cockroach; coordination in animals; effects of drugs on coordination; nervous disorders, chemical reaction.

Course Syllabus