Historical Development, Egyptian, Asiatic, Greek, Roman Indian, Romanesque, Muslim Architectures, Modern Architecture.

Influences: Geographical, Geological, Climatic, Religious, Social, Historical,

Landscape Architecture.

Railroad Engineering: Railway Alignment and Grades, Cross – section of Railway Tracks, Rails, Ballast and Sleepers, Laying of Tracks and Maintenance, Creep and Anticreep Devices, Points and Crossings, Station and Yards, Signalling and Interlocking, Automatic signalling, Modern methods of railway traction, Various types of locomotives, Track resistance, Railway Organization in Pakistan.

Coastal Engineering: Classification of Harbours, Design Principles and requirements of a good harbour, Effect of Wind, Waves, Tides and Current on the Design, Breakwaters, Channel regulation, Channel demarcation, Classification of docks and their construction, Port structures, Transit shed and Ware houses, Harbours of Pakistan.

Airport Engineering: Airport location, Airport planning, Factors influencing

Principles of Architecture: Truth or purpose, Beauty & Truth Qualities, Strength, Vitality, Grace, Breadth, Scale, Factors, Proportion, Colour, Balance.

Use of materials: Stone, Wood, Metals, concrete. General Treatment of Plans of Buildings, Walls, their construction, Openings, their position, character and shapes: Roofs: their development and employment, Columns, their position, or decoration, Moulding, their form and decortion, Ornament as applied to any building.

Town Planning: Definitions of town planning, Trends in urban growth, Objectives of sound planning.

Information Required: Maps, Population, Natural resources, Economic resources, Legal and administrative problems, Civic survey, City plan, Need and scope of comprehensive plan, Structure plan.

Phases of Planning: Principles of planning. Communication plan: Railroad network, Port and Harbour facilities: Elevated railroad and subways, street pattern, Gridiron, ring roads and radial systems, Parkway system. Street traffic and Design.

Use of Land: Residential, Parks and recreation facilities, Location of public andsemi-public buildings, Civic Centres, Commercial centres, Local shopping centres, Public schools. Zoning and other land use control.

Community planning, Suburban development. Slum areas, Katchiabadi and their redevelopment, Airport and City plan. Decentralization of industry and residential areas. Planning for urban areas. Municipal land policies and bye-laws. Economic value of city plan. Traffic control. New Town —Selection of site. Planning by laws.

Course Syllabus